Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Harappans were Vedic People – say the deciphered Indus seals

Harappans were Vedic People – say the deciphered Indus seals

             Skyviews of astronomical references in Rigveda & Ramayan have revealed that these represent the sky observed between 9000 BP and 7000 BP, whereas those of Mahabharata could be observed around 5000 BP. The archaeological excavations along the ancient courses of Saraswati and Indus rivers have reconstructed the history of Harappan Civilization which flourished in Indian Subcontinent between 6000 BP to 3500 BP. These have revealed that Harappans represented post Vedic civilization and there was continuity of culture since the Rigvedic era besides the other evidences.

            In addition to all these evidences which through light on the continuity of culture during the Holocene and since Rigvedic Era, a very large number of seals found from Harappan sites have supported the conclusion that Harappan were Vedic people. Various attempts made earlier to decipher these seals had failed because attempts were being made to decipher these in isolation without taking into account the contemporary or previous language and literature. . In fact the seals could have been deciphered only after reading the Vedic literature and Rigvedic Sanskrit because a script cannot be independent of language.

            Dr. S.R. Rao & Dr. N. Jha appreciated the point that a script can’t be deciphered by using a non-existent language. That is why they made most successful attempt at deciphering the Harappan seals as they read these in the context of Vedic words & Vedic language. Dr. N.Jha referred to Nighantu, a concise glossary of key vedic words compiled by sage Yaska, referred to in Shanti parva in epic Mahabharata and to Nirukta (Shanti Parva.342.73, 93, 89).

            After comprehensive analysis of script on the seals and its consistency with Vedic wsords and expressions, he concluded that the language of the seals represented the Vedic Sanskrit while the writing itself is proto-alphabetical, representing an intermediate stage in the evolution from a primitive consonantal (syllabic) system to the scientific alphabetical writing, which is the unique achievement of the Indian civilization.

            In Indus writing, a word consists of a string of consonants, whereas vowels were to be supplied keeping the context in mind. Where ever the word was to begin with vowel, a ‘U’ shaped symbol was provided. In this way Dr. N. Jha very convincingly deciphered most of the seals. The details of such decipherment given in his books e.g. ‘VEDIC GLOSSARY ON INDUS SEALS’ reflect that Harappans were Vedic people, who combined the Aryans an well as the Dravidian culture, which has continued in India till date. Some of the examples are given below:
Swastika figurines:

The swastika on a Harappan tablet (left), and on pottery of the early historical era (top right: Rupar; bottom right: Ahichchhatra). (@ASI)



                                                                  Seals from Harappa

          The Swastika symbol is an apt example of link between Vedic & Harappan cultures. The word swastika stands for svasti-ka i.e. ‘maker of welfare’. Both of the above signs appeared in Vedic literature and were also used in many Vedic ceremonies. The right figurine in particular represents sacred panca-svasti mantra found in Yajurveda (25.18-19), where the word ‘Svasti’ appears five times as:

तमीशानं जगतस्तस्थुषस्पतिं धीयञ्जिन्वमवसे हुमहे वयम्।
पूषा नो यथा वेदसामसद् वृधे रक्षिता पायुरदब्ध: स्वस्तये।। यजुर्वेद (25.18)
स्वस्ति नs इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवा: स्वस्ति न: पूषा विश्ववेदा:।
स्वस्ति नस्तार्क्ष्यो अरिष्टनेमि: स्वस्ति नो बृहस्पतिर्दधातु।। (25.19)

We invoke him who may bring us welfare,
May the respected Indra guard our welfare,
May the omniscient Pushan guard our welfare,
May the Universal Creator guard our welfare,
May the Great Protector bring us welfare.

            Similar invocations are found in Rigveda as well. It is important to take note of the fact that such Swastika seals were found during excavations from several Harappan sites including Harappa, Mohenjodero, Lothal and Kalibangan.

The Pranavakshara / OM & Ashvattha sign:
One look at these seals depicting Om combined with Ashvattha leaves will bring before our minds eye several references in Vedas. The maker of these seals obviously was a tremendous designer and had good knowledge of Vedas


                Fig.1                                                                                                       Fig.2

 (Mohenjodero “seal with motif of a two headed Unicon & the pipal tree in OM Shape after S.R. Rao)

         Such seals have been found from several Harappan towns. When viewed from different angles, these convey different Vedic Expressions. In Fig.1 the seal represents the couplet of Mundakopanishad (2.2.4) which says that “Om is the bow, the soul is the arrow, and Brahma is the target. With full concentration, aim at the target and strike, to become one with Brahma, just as the arrow becomes one with the target”.

It also represents a stanza (shloka) of Bhagavadgita (15.1). “The Ashvattha tree has its roots above and branches down; this symbolizes the Vishva Vriksha with branches below and God above. One who understands this has understood the Vedas.

In Fig.2 the Sanskrit/ Devnagari ‘Om’ apparent.

Bull seals representing Indra

    Fig.1                                                                                              Fig.2

                                                           Seal from Harappa

          In Vedic literature God Indra is associated with the bull as the symbol of strength. (Rigveda.1.7.8 & 1.139.6). In Fig.1 the script engraved was decephered as Indra by Dr. N.Jha. Such seals have been excavated from several Harappan towns, perticularly Harappa and Mohenjodero.

Pashupati seal and Shivlinga

 (from Harappa & Kalibangan)

 (Indus seal © ASI)                     

                             Mohenjodero ‘seal 420’ after ‘S.R.Rao’

         It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words. The above two figurines do not need much explanation. Both represent Lord Shiva, who is worshipped by Vedic Aryans, by Harappans as well as by modern day Indians in the same shape and form. These should be adequate enough to establish the connection between Harappan & Vedic civilization and continuity till date.

        The inscriptions on 2nd seal need some explanation. To decipher the inscriptions one need to understand the Niruktas and Nighantus. The inscription is deciphered by N Jha as ‘ishaadyattah maaraah’, which means ‘Evil adversaries controlled by Isha (Pashpati Seal) 

                   0308 Mohenjodaro seal

Seal with a motif of a man holding or keeping apart two tigers. This seal reminds us of king Bharata, son of Shkuntala & Dushyant and ancestors of kauravas & pandavas of Mahabharata.

            There are many more such instances of Indus seals having inscriptions of Vedic expressions. Thus there is no doubt that Harappans represented the post Vedic civilization and artifacts as well as the seals found were similar to the descriptions in Rigveda

Saroj Bala, Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras
N.S. Rajaram. 2006. Sarasvati River and the Vedic Civilization
Michel Danino. 2010. The Lost River (on the trail of the SARASVATI)
K. S. Valdiya. 2002. SARASWATI (The River that Disappeared)
Bhagwan Singh. 1995.  THE VEDIC HARAPPANS
श्री राम शर्मा. आचार्य. 2003. ऋग्वेद संहिता

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Genetic affinity of the Bhil, Kol and Gond mentioned in epic Ramayana

Genetic study of Ramayana tribes rejects Aryan invasion theory and supports indigenous common ancestry of Indian populations

            An international team of researchers consisting of geneticists, anthropologists and Research Scholars have found that Ramayana, composed around 7,100 years ago, is a chronicle of events and characters recorded by Sage Valmiki and is not a work of fiction. They also found that North Indians & Dravidians share their genetic profile; they have lived in India for more than 12000 years and there is no evidence of any Gene –inflow.

            Normally it is being taught in schools and colleges in India that Aryans immigrated into Indian Subcontinent from Central Asia around 1500 BC and that the aboriginal Indians who were uncivilised at that time were defeated and pushed towards south & they became Dravidians whereas invading Aryans occupied North India and are settled there till date. This view was based on linguistic guess work but many scientific researches like astronomy, archaeology, paleobotany, and space imagery have been providing evidence that this Aryan Invasion theory is incorrect, having no scientific basis.

            Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas had earlier reported that skyviews of planetary references in Ramayana could be seen sequentially 7100 ago and that several archaeological and paleobotanical evidences had supported these dates for Ramayana era Latest in the series are the genetic studies. A paper published in the internationally reputed journal PLOS ONE has thrown light on this issue by utilizing the data obtained from Valmiki Ramayan and testing this with the genetic studies carried out by using advanced genetic research and tools. The research team comprised of:

1.      Geneticist, Dr Gyaneshwer Chaubey, from Estonian Biocentre, Tartu
2.      Traditional Anthropologist, Prof. V.R. Rao, Anthropology Department, Delhi University
3.      Ramayana Scholar, Mrs. Saroj Bala, Director of the Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas
4.      IITian from Delhi, Mr. Anurag Kadiyan,

            The team extracted detailed information about Indian tribal populations from the oldest epic Valmiki Ramayana and tested their concordance and discordance with the high resolution genetic data. This was an interdisciplinary project between the scientists and scholars from India and from Estonia. It took around three years to complete this research project.

            To begin with, the team selected three main tribal populations, namely: Kol (e.g. Guh Nishad), Bhil (e.g. Bhilni) and Gond (from Dandakvan area), and extracted references to these tribes from different chapters of Ramayana, along with their geographic locations. Then they, particularly Dr. Gyaneshwar Chaubey, scanned hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms among these three ancient tribes, and also compared the results with their neighboring populations and other world populations.
            The analysis, conducted using various statistical methods/tools, suggested that:
·      These tribes have been living in India for last more than 12000 years and there are no evidences of any gene inflow.
·      The genetic structuring of these ancient tribes is largely similar to their contemporary tribal and caste populations, suggesting genetic continuity of Indian population for more than 10000 years.
·      Further, extent of genetic component sharing among different populations reflected their similarity with other Indian populations establishing that these were primarily founded over indigenous component, having continuity since last over ten thousand years.

            The team has also concluded that all Indians from North or from South, irrespective of their caste and tribal affiliations, share a common genetic ancestry, which is undoubtedly founded over the indigenous ASI component.

Title: Genetic affinity of the Bhil, Kol and Gond mentioned in epic Ramayana

Wednesday, August 20, 2014


Sky views, generated through Planetarium software, of planetary references in Valmiki Ramayana relate sequentially to the period around 5100 BC i.e. 7000 BP. There is some very interesting corroboration through DNA studies.

Indian history has recorded that Shri Ram s/o Raja Dashrath, belonged to Surya Vansh and he was the 64th ruler of this dynasty. Most of the names and other relevant particulars of previous 63 kings are listed in Vishnu Purana (Chaturth Ansha, Chapter 5), Srimad Bhagwat Purana (Navam Skandha, Chapter 13), Valmiki Ramayan (Baal Kaand, Sarga 70-71).

Manu was the first king, Iksavaku second, Harishchandra was 33rd ruler, whereas Sagar was 40th and Bhagirath was 44th ruler of Suryavansha. There are also names of 62 successors of Lord Ram listed in these ancient books. Thus the dates of Suryavanshi rulers get pushed back by around 2000 years i.e. to 9000 BP. It is obvious that it would have taken at least 2000 years for the civilization to develop practices relating to agriculture and irrigation, trade and industry, navigation and shipping, urban planning and civil administration; leading to formation of large kingdoms and the institution of kingship. It would have taken a few thousand years, after the beginning of the Nutan Yug, for the evolving society to attain the level of intellectual, philosophical, cultural and scientific activity as is evident from the contents of Vedas and Ramayan.

Almost all the major Genome studies carried out for the Holocene (nutan yug) period, including those carried out by Kenneth A. R. Kennedy and Cavalli-Sfroza, have revealed an amazing correlation of the genealogy with the genetic profile of humans settled in Indian Subcontinent since the Holocene (about 11000 years). These have also corroborated the development of civilization revealed through Vedas and Epics. Almost all the Genome studies have concluded that genetic profile of people of the Indian subcontinent has remained the same for last more than 55000 years. For last 11000 years, this genetic profile is of culturally developing people who had started speaking a structured language and were taking cooked food. It has also been concluded that the Dravidians as well as north Indians have common ancestors and both are originals of India, have common genetic profile and had common ancestors.

A very interesting study was recently conducted by Dr. Gyaneshwar Chaubey of Estonian Biocentre. He scanned genepool of three most ancient tribes mentioned in Ramayana, i.e. Kol (e.g. Guh nishad), Bhil (e.g. Bhilni) and Gond, and compared the results with their neighboring populations and other world populations. It was concluded that the genepool of these tribes was primarily founded over indigenous component, having continuity for last over ten thousand years. Is it not a most emphatic rejection of Aryan Invasion theory, and corroboration of astronomical dates of Ramayana references?

Suggested Readings

1. Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

2. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (2003) The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution. Nat Genet 33 Suppl: 266-275.

3. Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Villems R (2007) Peopling of South Asia: investigating the caste-tribe continuum in India. Bioessays 29: 91-100.(

4. Chaubey G The demographic history of India: A perspective based on genetic evidence ( PhD. Universitatis Tartuensis, Evolutionary Biology;(2010)

5. Kazanas N (1999) The Rigveda and Indo-Europeans. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute

6. Tiwari SK Tribal roots of Hinduism. Sarup & Sons; (2002)

7. Kapil Kapoor and Sheshagiri Rao, Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Vols. I and XI) India Heritage Research Foundation-USA

8. Rajaram N.S. and David Frawley, The Vedic"Aryans" and the origins of civilization : a literary and scientific perspective: World Heritage Press.

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

GANGA - faith and reality intertwined (a fascinating story)

Story of origin of Ganga narrated in valmiki ramayan -

'Descending from the sky-high Shivalinga peaks of Himalayas, Ganga got entangled in the mighty serpentine glaciers spread all around like matted coils of Lord Shiva's hair and thus continued to meander in the Gangotri glaciers for many years. With the superhuman efforts of Suryavanshi king, Bhagirath, its waters were brought to the terrestrial planes and it flowed through the path dug by Sagar putras/sainiks and its waters flowed right upto Rasatala ie.samudra, and thus Bhagirath could offer tarpan to his sixty thousand ancestors'.

It is described also as Tripathaga as it carves its way from heaven (i.e. Shivalinga peaks), through matted coils of Shiva's hair (i.e. mighty gangotri glaciers) and finally flows in subterranean region, right upto Ganga sagar. 

This in short is the story of origin of Ganga narrated by Rishi Vishwamitra to Shri Ram (Ramayan, Baal kand, sargas 38 to 45)!. For those who are looking for divine interpretation - Ganga descended from heavens, got entangled in Jata-joot of Lord Shiva and then came to earth. For those who are looking for rational and scientific meaning, Ganga (Bhagirthi) descended from Shivalinga peaks, meandered through Gangotri Glaciers and flowed through the plains of northern India, right upto Rasatal (Gangasagar), the route for which had been dug out under the orders of raja Sagar. Let us look at just one picture of the region to appreciate that both divinity and reality aspects are correct and represent wonderful poetic skills of Valmiki Ji -

                            Sunset at Gangotri, looking up the Ganges Valley toward Gaumukh. Bhagirath peak is on the left, and Shivling on the right. 
                       (Photo courtesy of Nick Barootian '02)

Astronomical dates of sky views depicted by Aadi Kavi Valmiki Ji at the time of important events in Lord Ram's life match sequentially around 5100 BC. Lord Ram was the 64th ruler of Suryavansh, whereas Sagar was its 40th ruler and Bhagirath 44th ruler. This will take us to around 6000 BC (8000 BP).

Raja Sagar was worried that north western Bharatvarsha was getting flooded whereas eastern areas of Indian sub-continent were suffering from acute water shortages. Consequently he made a plan to divert waters from Himalayas to the eastern areas right upto Bengal areas and then, as was the custom in those days, he commenced a Yajna (sacrificial performance), which was to be concluded only when sacrificial horse was brought back from such far off destination.

The horse was taken to Kapil Muni's Ashram, probably modern day Gangasagar, Sixty thousand sons (Sainiks of Sagar) were sent to dig out the route right upto Rasatal (1/39/15,19,21).When they came back without the horse after carrying out digging, they were sent back by Raja Sagar to redig on the same route and then due to shortage of water combined with inhospitality of Kapil Muni, they all died (1/40/11). For next 32 years, Sagar could not think of any concrete plan to divert Himalayan waters towards the East through the dug-out path and died after about 32 years. His grandson Anshuman made efforts for 32 years but could not get the Ganga waters reached for the tarpan of his ancestors. Similaly his successor Raja Dilip made efforts for another 30 years but could not succeed.

Raja Bhagirath was coronated as the 44th Suryavanshi samraat. However, in order to save his praja in the north west from deluge and in the east from draught and in order to reach Ganga waters to rasatal for the tarpan of his ancestors, Raja Bhagirath went to Himalayas after leaving the affairs of the kingdom on his mantris, For several years he carried out research and exploration, observing the Shivalinga peak from the hill top which was shaped like the tip of the thumb, and was later named as Bhagirath peak (1/43/1).

Finally with the blessings of Lord Brahma and lord Shiva, he succeeded in identifying the mighty Gangotri glaciers, looking like jata-joot of Lord Shiva, in which Ganga waters were entangled (1/43/4,7). After some more research, he identified and also partly created the route through which waters could be carried to the wide spread routes got dug by his ancestor Raja Sagar and thus succeeded in completing the kalyankari project which his ancestors had started 1/44/1,28,12). In this manner sacred Ganga descended from the sky on Shiva's forehead and then flowed onto the earth; roaring, tumbling and gliding, it reached the sea (gangasagar). (refer - 1/43/15,23,24).

Sea level fluctuations fully support the above details and reveal very clearly that water level in the sea rose drastically during 8000 BP to 7000 BP. Look at the sea level curve prepared by Dr. Rajiv Nigam of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO). Surprisingly reference to this phenomena has also been made in Yudhh Kaand of Valmiki Ramayan (6/19/31 & 6/22/50), where Vibhishan is mentioning to Lord Ram that the sea should reveal the shallow water route for construction of a bridge because its waters had been augmented by ancestors of Lord Ram.

Remote sensing imagery explained by Sharma and Bhadra of ISRO Jodhpur centre seems to be corroborating these details and time line. Further somewhere around 5000 BP, Yamuna, which was a tributary of Sarasvati got diverted to Ganga. Archaeological reports support these conclusions with plethora of evidence. Thus, in early Rigvedic period Sarasvati was the mightiest river, whereas in later Vedic age Ganga, Sindhu and Sarasvati were worshipped as the mighty rivers. Slowly Sarasvati disappeared as it became non perennial and ephemeral. Ganga emerged as the symbol of life and emancipator of mankind. She is worshipped as the divinity in flow.

For some related details refer to -
1) Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

Ganga:A Divinity In Flow (English) by Vijay Singal

Ek thi Nadi sarasvati by Valdiya 

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (Hindi)

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (English)

RAMSETHU - Faith vis-a-vis Reality

Ramsetu is a natural chain of islands, hills, shoals, submerged in Palk Strait from Dhanushkoti to Talaimannar, in which certain gaps have been filled up, indicating the contribution of human hand. One of the two surviving fillings can be seen in the picture revealing well defined boundaries and stone fillings. During visit to Rameshwaram, I got an extra-ordinary opportunity to observe the depth at which a part of Ramsethu was found submerged under the sea which measured 9.5 feet (about 3 meters) on the fisherman’s oar.

Fig. 8: Boundaries looking like ropes & the fillings in between

Ram’s Bridge – references in Ramayan

In Yuddh Kand, sarg 22 (shlokas 45-73) Valmiki has given graphic details of Lord Ram carrying out research and exploration to identify a suitable location for construction of the bridge. After identifying the location, he requested Sugriva to search for an expert Shilpakar who could construct such a bridge. Sugriva recommended the name of Nal, a famous shilpakar, who had the expertise similar to that of Vishwakarma in constructing the bridge. Accordingly Nal was called; he concurred that bridge could indeed to constructed at the location identified by Shri Ram. The construction of this bridge was completed under the supervision of Nal in five days by filling up of the gaps in the existing natural chain of land route consisting of islands, rocks and shoals (6/22/68-73).

The armymen of Lord Ram utilized various tools and implements for uprooting trees like saal, taar, coconut, mango, ashoka, arjun, bakul and bilva etc (6/22/47). With the help of various yantras they transported these stones, trees, creepers, and boulders to the seashore (2/22/60). Shilpakar Nal directed the armymen to stand with long ropes on either side and got the bridge constructed in five days by binding such transported materials together. Even the use of measuring tools has been described (6/22/65).

Rama's Bridge - its satellite image and oceanographic evidences:

The bridge is composed of a series of islands, rocks, and shoals and it is stated to be 30 kilometers long. It is found exactly at the location narrated in Valmiki Ramayan. See NASA picture of this Bridge given above.

Sea level curve prepared by the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, corroborates the fact that sea level was about three meters lower around 5100 BC; thus corroborating the fact that in 5100 BC Ramsethu was above the sea level and could be used as a land route between Rameshwaram and Sri Lanka. Thus even fluctuations in sea levels corroborate references to Ramsethu in Ramayan.


Some very Interesting facts about Ramsethu

All attempts to create shipping route by completing the Sethu Samudram project have so far failed. Shri Subramnian Swamy summarized the report dated January 23, 2007 published in the Asian Age stating that “the Dredging Corporation of India’s (DCI) dredger imported from Holland had broken into two and sunk into the sea when it began work on the Ram Setu. The DCI crane that went to pick up the dredger pieces also broke and sank. The Russian engineer consultant who went to inspect the mishap broke his leg.” As a result all efforts made on behalf of the Government so far to destroy remains of Ram Setu have failed and consequently Sethusamudram Shipping Canal could not become a reality.

 We suggest that why not construct a the bridge as several multi-nationals are offering to construct the bridge under BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) scheme? Can one imagine the number of people from India who will walk over this reconstructed Ramsethu every year and the kind of profit the builder as well as Indian and Sri Lankan Governments would be able to earn! The relations between the two neighboring countries would drastically improve.


Dates of Ramayana

Dates of sky views in Ramayana

The story of Shri Ram‘s life was first narrated by Maharishi Valmiki in the ‘Ramayan’ wherein he has made sequential astronomical references on important dates related to the life of Shri Ram. By entering the precise details of these planetary configurations using the software named ‘Planetarium Gold’ corresponding exact dates of these events can be known.

Date of Birth of Lord Ram -

In Baal Kand (1/18/8-10) it has been stated that Shri Ram was born on 9th tithi of Chaitra month during day time when the position of different planets vis-à-vis zodiac constellations and nakshatras was as under:

1. Sun in Aries        
2. Venus in Pisces
3. Mars in Capricorn 
4. Saturn in Libra
5. Jupiter rising in Cancer                    
6. Moon near star Punar vasu (Pollux) in Gemini Constellation

Amazing! See the sky view below shows exactly similar location of planets, stars and zodiac constellations on the 10th of January in the year 5114 BC if viewed from latitude/longitude of Ayodhya (25°N 81°E). By making use of software to convert solar calendar into lunar calendar, it was found that this date also happened to be the 9th day of Shukla Paksha in ‘Chaitra’ month and the time was around 12 to 1 noontime. This is exactly the time and date when Ramnavmi is celebrated all over India till date.

Date of Exile of Shri Ram

In Valmiki Ramayan it is mentioned in Ayodhya Kaand (2/4/18) that Dashratha wanted to make Shri Ram the king because Sun, Mars and Rahu had surrounded his nakshatra and normally under such planetary positions the king dies or becomes a victim of conspiracies. Zodiac sign of king Dashratha was Pisces and his nakshatra was Rewati. This planetary position was prevailing on the 5th of January 5089 BC and it was on this day that Shri Ram had to leave Ayodhya for 14 years. Thus he was 25 years old at that time (5114-5089) and there are several shlokas in Valmiki Ramayan which indicate that Shri Ram was 25 years old when he left Ayodhya for his 14 years of exile.


Solar Eclipse during War with Khar-Dushan

Ramayan refers to the solar eclipse at the time of war with Khar-Dushan in later half of 13th year of Shri Ram’s stay in the forests. Valmiki has also mentioned that it was Amavasya day and planet Mars was in the middle. When this data was entered, the sky view generated by Planetarium software indicated that there was a solar eclipse on 7th October, 5077 BC which could be seen from Panchvati (20° N; 73° E) On that date planetary configuration was the same as has been described by Valmiki i.e. Mars was in the middle; on one side were Mercury, Venus and Jupiter and on the other side were Sun, Moon and Saturn. (Fig. 2).

Other Eclipses mentioned in Ramayan
In Kishkindha kaand there is a reference to solar eclipse (4/15/3) on the day Bali was killed. Software shows a solar eclipse on 3rd April 5076 BC which was the only solar eclipse during the entire year.
In Sunder Kaand there is a reference to lunar eclipse when Hanuman spots Sita in Ashok Vatika (5/19/14, 5/29/7, 5/35/87). Sky view reveals lunar eclipse starting from 4.15 pm on 12th September 5076 BC from Colombo (7°N; 80°E).
Thus the planetary references in Valmiki Ramayan correspond to actual sky seen from the given places around 5100 BC in the same sequence as narrated. The way in which archaeological, paleobotanical, genetic, oceanographic, geological, ecological and remote sensing research reports corroborate the astronomical dates is amazing! These details will also be shared through our upcoming website,
Lessons from the life of Lord Ram
The story of Shri Ram, when appreciated in its true perspective, would emerge as the biggest unifying factor for India. He remains unparalleled as an ideal son, an ideal brother, an ideal warrior and an ideal king; that is why he is described as Maryada Purushottam Ram!
He was a nationalist par excellence who left his kingdom to help the small kings located all over India to save their kingdoms from being usurped by wicked King Ravana of Sri Lanka and his relatives and devils like Khar, Dushan, Trishira and Maarich representing him in India.
Shri Ram moved from place to place to spread the message of unity by showing very high level of respect for the people from backward tribes and those considered untouchable. He embraced Guh Nishad who belonged to Kol tribe, considered to be a lower caste; he gave a strong message against untouchability by eating with great affection jootha berries of Bhilni (Shabri) of Bhil tribe. He sent his wife and children to be brought up and educated by Maharishi Valmiki who is stated to be Shudra but was a great scholar in the ancient world.
Shri Ram tried and succeeded in establishing victory of good over evil. He helped rishis and munis in living a life of honor. He got the kingdoms of small noble kings restored to them and acted as the biggest unifying factor. He set the finest example of a welfare state, in which the supreme duty of the king is working for the well being and happiness of masses.
We all need to strive to establish Ram Rajya in India for rich and poor of all communities and castes!

Friday, June 15, 2012

Scientific Dating of Vedic and Ramayan Era

Ecological perspective
History of the Holocene (post last ice age) deserves to be rewritten based on multi-disciplinary scientific evidences. Aryan invasion theory was propagated based on linguistic guesswork, religious hearsay and old outdated archaeological reports. Christianity has long back discarded its 18th century beliefs that world got created on 23rd October, 4004 BC, Biblical flood occurred in 2400 B.C. and that civilizations started expanding and migrating in around 1500 B.C. It is almost unanimously accepted by the scholars and scientists that there have been several cycles of civilizations and that last ice age ended around 10000 B.C., ushering in the beginnings of Holocene i.e. Nutan Yug.
The melting of ice caps naturally got started near the Equator, resulting in discharge of huge quantities of water which first flowed in the form of rivers in South India. The civilizations developed, populations multiplied over hundreds of years resulting in water scarcity. More adventurous started migrating northwards - initially towards central India and later on towards the Himalayan rivers in the North. Thousands of years of water security provided by Saraswati, Indus and Ganga river systems and world's most fertile planes cultivated around them naturally facilitated the extra-ordinary development of culture and civilization from around 8000 B.C. After thousands of years water supply from ice-caps started depleting, tectonic movements resulted in drying up of rivers like Saraswati, trade relations flourished and more adventurous people started moving towards Central Asia and Europe. Thus there was neither any end of Vedic civilisation due to imaginary Aryan invasion theory nor were Dravidians 'aboriginal savages' of North India. The rise and fall of Vedic Civilisation is thus attributable to ecological cycle post last ice age and not to any 'Aryan invasion'
Sky views in Rigveda
There are 53 references in Rigveda as prayers offered to Aswinis at dawn. The description clearly points to the observation of the pair of stars in the Aries constellation (referred to as Aashvin or Asvini) just before sunrise as a ritual to mark the year beginning. Using Planetarium software, we find that the Winter Solstice occurred on 19 December, 7000 BC at 0735 hrs as shown in Figure 1. This is the earliest reference to Vedic calendar with year beginning at Winter Solstice, found in Rigveda (5-77-1/2; 1-46-14; 7-69-3/2). Heliacal rising of Ashwini Nakshatra (Aries) can be seen to occur on 5th January, 7000 BC, marking the year beginning (Fig. 1).

Fig. 2: Sky on Jan 05, 7000 BC, 0649 hrs shows heliacal rising of Asvini Nakshatra after Winter Solstice, marking the year beginning (RgVeda  5-77-1/2; 1-46-14; 7-69-3/2). 

A thousand years later, Winter Solstice no longer occurred near Aries (Asvini) due to precession. As a result, Ashwinis were no longer rising heliacally as before. They were still below the horizon at sunrise around Winter Solstice time. The Winter Solstice had moved to Revati by 6000 BC. Thus the precession of Equinoxes and Solistices was being observed by Rigvedic Scholars.

The Sky of 19th December, 6000 BC at sunrise on the Winter Solstice day shows that Ashvini gave way to bright star Chitra (α Vir) on opposite side (Western horizon). A full Moon in Chitra Nakshatra provided a new time marker in the sky and heralded the lunar month naming system-Chaitra, Vaisakha etc. (Rigveda: 5-74-1,2 and Tait Samh. 7-4-8). See Fig. 2 -

Winter Solstice opposite Citra - Sky of 19 Dec 6000 BC at sunrise shows that Asvini gave way to bright star Citra on opposite side (western horizon). It began to be used for determining the year beginning. A full Moon occurring in Citra heralded the lunar month naming system-Caitra, Vaisakha etc (Tait.  Samh. 7-4-8).

Most amazing is the fact that reference to Agastya Muni (who composed some Slokas of Rigveda) first observing star Canopus (star Agastya) from Vindhyas refers to the sky view of 18th Dcember, 5100 BC. Lord Ram also visits Agastya Muni's Agnishala and sequential astronomical dates of important events in Shri Ram's life also are of around 5100 BC!

Recommended Readings:

1. Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

2. Subramanian Swamy. 2008. Rama Setu: Symbol of National Unity

3. Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (Hindi).

4. Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (English).

5.  Sita Ram, Rai Bahadur. 1932. Ayodhya Ka Itihas (in Hindi). New Delhi: Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh.