Wednesday, August 20, 2014

RAMAYANA AND GENOME STUDIES

Sky views, generated through Planetarium software, of planetary references in Valmiki Ramayana relate sequentially to the period around 5100 BC i.e. 7000 BP. There is some very interesting corroboration through DNA studies.

Indian history has recorded that Shri Ram s/o Raja Dashrath, belonged to Surya Vansh and he was the 64th ruler of this dynasty. Most of the names and other relevant particulars of previous 63 kings are listed in Vishnu Purana (Chaturth Ansha, Chapter 5), Srimad Bhagwat Purana (Navam Skandha, Chapter 13), Valmiki Ramayan (Baal Kaand, Sarga 70-71).

Manu was the first king, Iksavaku second, Harishchandra was 33rd ruler, whereas Sagar was 40th and Bhagirath was 44th ruler of Suryavansha. There are also names of 62 successors of Lord Ram listed in these ancient books. Thus the dates of Suryavanshi rulers get pushed back by around 2000 years i.e. to 9000 BP. It is obvious that it would have taken at least 2000 years for the civilization to develop practices relating to agriculture and irrigation, trade and industry, navigation and shipping, urban planning and civil administration; leading to formation of large kingdoms and the institution of kingship. It would have taken a few thousand years, after the beginning of the Nutan Yug, for the evolving society to attain the level of intellectual, philosophical, cultural and scientific activity as is evident from the contents of Vedas and Ramayan.

Almost all the major Genome studies carried out for the Holocene (nutan yug) period, including those carried out by Kenneth A. R. Kennedy and Cavalli-Sfroza, have revealed an amazing correlation of the genealogy with the genetic profile of humans settled in Indian Subcontinent since the Holocene (about 11000 years). These have also corroborated the development of civilization revealed through Vedas and Epics. Almost all the Genome studies have concluded that genetic profile of people of the Indian subcontinent has remained the same for last more than 55000 years. For last 11000 years, this genetic profile is of culturally developing people who had started speaking a structured language and were taking cooked food. It has also been concluded that the Dravidians as well as north Indians have common ancestors and both are originals of India, have common genetic profile and had common ancestors.

A very interesting study was recently conducted by Dr. Gyaneshwar Chaubey of Estonian Biocentre. He scanned genepool of three most ancient tribes mentioned in Ramayana, i.e. Kol (e.g. Guh nishad), Bhil (e.g. Bhilni) and Gond, and compared the results with their neighboring populations and other world populations. It was concluded that the genepool of these tribes was primarily founded over indigenous component, having continuity for last over ten thousand years. Is it not a most emphatic rejection of Aryan Invasion theory, and corroboration of astronomical dates of Ramayana references?

  
Suggested Readings

1. Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

2. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (2003) The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution. Nat Genet 33 Suppl: 266-275.

3. Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Villems R (2007) Peopling of South Asia: investigating the caste-tribe continuum in India. Bioessays 29: 91-100.(http://hdl.handle.net/10062/15240)

4. Chaubey G The demographic history of India: A perspective based on genetic evidence (http://hdl.handle.net/10062/15240). PhD. Universitatis Tartuensis, Evolutionary Biology;(2010)

5. Kazanas N (1999) The Rigveda and Indo-Europeans. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute

6. Tiwari SK Tribal roots of Hinduism. Sarup & Sons; (2002)

7. Kapil Kapoor and Sheshagiri Rao, Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Vols. I and XI) India Heritage Research Foundation-USA

8. Rajaram N.S. and David Frawley, The Vedic"Aryans" and the origins of civilization : a literary and scientific perspective: World Heritage Press.

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

GANGA - faith and reality intertwined (a fascinating story)


Story of origin of Ganga narrated in valmiki ramayan -

'Descending from the sky-high Shivalinga peaks of Himalayas, Ganga got entangled in the mighty serpentine glaciers spread all around like matted coils of Lord Shiva's hair and thus continued to meander in the Gangotri glaciers for many years. With the superhuman efforts of Suryavanshi king, Bhagirath, its waters were brought to the terrestrial planes and it flowed through the path dug by Sagar putras/sainiks and its waters flowed right upto Rasatala ie.samudra, and thus Bhagirath could offer tarpan to his sixty thousand ancestors'.

It is described also as Tripathaga as it carves its way from heaven (i.e. Shivalinga peaks), through matted coils of Shiva's hair (i.e. mighty gangotri glaciers) and finally flows in subterranean region, right upto Ganga sagar. 

This in short is the story of origin of Ganga narrated by Rishi Vishwamitra to Shri Ram (Ramayan, Baal kand, sargas 38 to 45)!. For those who are looking for divine interpretation - Ganga descended from heavens, got entangled in Jata-joot of Lord Shiva and then came to earth. For those who are looking for rational and scientific meaning, Ganga (Bhagirthi) descended from Shivalinga peaks, meandered through Gangotri Glaciers and flowed through the plains of northern India, right upto Rasatal (Gangasagar), the route for which had been dug out under the orders of raja Sagar. Let us look at just one picture of the region to appreciate that both divinity and reality aspects are correct and represent wonderful poetic skills of Valmiki Ji -


                            Sunset at Gangotri, looking up the Ganges Valley toward Gaumukh. Bhagirath peak is on the left, and Shivling on the right. 
                       (Photo courtesy of Nick Barootian '02)


Astronomical dates of sky views depicted by Aadi Kavi Valmiki Ji at the time of important events in Lord Ram's life match sequentially around 5100 BC. Lord Ram was the 64th ruler of Suryavansh, whereas Sagar was its 40th ruler and Bhagirath 44th ruler. This will take us to around 6000 BC (8000 BP).

Raja Sagar was worried that north western Bharatvarsha was getting flooded whereas eastern areas of Indian sub-continent were suffering from acute water shortages. Consequently he made a plan to divert waters from Himalayas to the eastern areas right upto Bengal areas and then, as was the custom in those days, he commenced a Yajna (sacrificial performance), which was to be concluded only when sacrificial horse was brought back from such far off destination.

The horse was taken to Kapil Muni's Ashram, probably modern day Gangasagar, Sixty thousand sons (Sainiks of Sagar) were sent to dig out the route right upto Rasatal (1/39/15,19,21).When they came back without the horse after carrying out digging, they were sent back by Raja Sagar to redig on the same route and then due to shortage of water combined with inhospitality of Kapil Muni, they all died (1/40/11). For next 32 years, Sagar could not think of any concrete plan to divert Himalayan waters towards the East through the dug-out path and died after about 32 years. His grandson Anshuman made efforts for 32 years but could not get the Ganga waters reached for the tarpan of his ancestors. Similaly his successor Raja Dilip made efforts for another 30 years but could not succeed.

Raja Bhagirath was coronated as the 44th Suryavanshi samraat. However, in order to save his praja in the north west from deluge and in the east from draught and in order to reach Ganga waters to rasatal for the tarpan of his ancestors, Raja Bhagirath went to Himalayas after leaving the affairs of the kingdom on his mantris, For several years he carried out research and exploration, observing the Shivalinga peak from the hill top which was shaped like the tip of the thumb, and was later named as Bhagirath peak (1/43/1).

Finally with the blessings of Lord Brahma and lord Shiva, he succeeded in identifying the mighty Gangotri glaciers, looking like jata-joot of Lord Shiva, in which Ganga waters were entangled (1/43/4,7). After some more research, he identified and also partly created the route through which waters could be carried to the wide spread routes got dug by his ancestor Raja Sagar and thus succeeded in completing the kalyankari project which his ancestors had started 1/44/1,28,12). In this manner sacred Ganga descended from the sky on Shiva's forehead and then flowed onto the earth; roaring, tumbling and gliding, it reached the sea (gangasagar). (refer - 1/43/15,23,24).

Sea level fluctuations fully support the above details and reveal very clearly that water level in the sea rose drastically during 8000 BP to 7000 BP. Look at the sea level curve prepared by Dr. Rajiv Nigam of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO). Surprisingly reference to this phenomena has also been made in Yudhh Kaand of Valmiki Ramayan (6/19/31 & 6/22/50), where Vibhishan is mentioning to Lord Ram that the sea should reveal the shallow water route for construction of a bridge because its waters had been augmented by ancestors of Lord Ram.


Remote sensing imagery explained by Sharma and Bhadra of ISRO Jodhpur centre seems to be corroborating these details and time line. Further somewhere around 5000 BP, Yamuna, which was a tributary of Sarasvati got diverted to Ganga. Archaeological reports support these conclusions with plethora of evidence. Thus, in early Rigvedic period Sarasvati was the mightiest river, whereas in later Vedic age Ganga, Sindhu and Sarasvati were worshipped as the mighty rivers. Slowly Sarasvati disappeared as it became non perennial and ephemeral. Ganga emerged as the symbol of life and emancipator of mankind. She is worshipped as the divinity in flow.


For some related details refer to -
1) Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

Ganga:A Divinity In Flow (English) by Vijay Singal


Ek thi Nadi sarasvati by Valdiya 

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (Hindi)

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (English)

RAMSETHU - Faith vis-a-vis Reality


Ramsetu is a natural chain of islands, hills, shoals, submerged in Palk Strait from Dhanushkoti to Talaimannar, in which certain gaps have been filled up, indicating the contribution of human hand. One of the two surviving fillings can be seen in the picture revealing well defined boundaries and stone fillings. During visit to Rameshwaram, I got an extra-ordinary opportunity to observe the depth at which a part of Ramsethu was found submerged under the sea which measured 9.5 feet (about 3 meters) on the fisherman’s oar.



Fig. 8: Boundaries looking like ropes & the fillings in between
 

Ram’s Bridge – references in Ramayan

In Yuddh Kand, sarg 22 (shlokas 45-73) Valmiki has given graphic details of Lord Ram carrying out research and exploration to identify a suitable location for construction of the bridge. After identifying the location, he requested Sugriva to search for an expert Shilpakar who could construct such a bridge. Sugriva recommended the name of Nal, a famous shilpakar, who had the expertise similar to that of Vishwakarma in constructing the bridge. Accordingly Nal was called; he concurred that bridge could indeed to constructed at the location identified by Shri Ram. The construction of this bridge was completed under the supervision of Nal in five days by filling up of the gaps in the existing natural chain of land route consisting of islands, rocks and shoals (6/22/68-73).

The armymen of Lord Ram utilized various tools and implements for uprooting trees like saal, taar, coconut, mango, ashoka, arjun, bakul and bilva etc (6/22/47). With the help of various yantras they transported these stones, trees, creepers, and boulders to the seashore (2/22/60). Shilpakar Nal directed the armymen to stand with long ropes on either side and got the bridge constructed in five days by binding such transported materials together. Even the use of measuring tools has been described (6/22/65).

 
Rama's Bridge - its satellite image and oceanographic evidences:



The bridge is composed of a series of islands, rocks, and shoals and it is stated to be 30 kilometers long. It is found exactly at the location narrated in Valmiki Ramayan. See NASA picture of this Bridge given above.

Sea level curve prepared by the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, corroborates the fact that sea level was about three meters lower around 5100 BC; thus corroborating the fact that in 5100 BC Ramsethu was above the sea level and could be used as a land route between Rameshwaram and Sri Lanka. Thus even fluctuations in sea levels corroborate references to Ramsethu in Ramayan.

 

Some very Interesting facts about Ramsethu

All attempts to create shipping route by completing the Sethu Samudram project have so far failed. Shri Subramnian Swamy summarized the report dated January 23, 2007 published in the Asian Age stating that “the Dredging Corporation of India’s (DCI) dredger imported from Holland had broken into two and sunk into the sea when it began work on the Ram Setu. The DCI crane that went to pick up the dredger pieces also broke and sank. The Russian engineer consultant who went to inspect the mishap broke his leg.” As a result all efforts made on behalf of the Government so far to destroy remains of Ram Setu have failed and consequently Sethusamudram Shipping Canal could not become a reality.

 We suggest that why not construct a the bridge as several multi-nationals are offering to construct the bridge under BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) scheme? Can one imagine the number of people from India who will walk over this reconstructed Ramsethu every year and the kind of profit the builder as well as Indian and Sri Lankan Governments would be able to earn! The relations between the two neighboring countries would drastically improve.

 

Dates of Ramayana


Dates of sky views in Ramayana

           
The story of Shri Ram‘s life was first narrated by Maharishi Valmiki in the ‘Ramayan’ wherein he has made sequential astronomical references on important dates related to the life of Shri Ram. By entering the precise details of these planetary configurations using the software named ‘Planetarium Gold’ corresponding exact dates of these events can be known.

           
Date of Birth of Lord Ram -

 
In Baal Kand (1/18/8-10) it has been stated that Shri Ram was born on 9th tithi of Chaitra month during day time when the position of different planets vis-à-vis zodiac constellations and nakshatras was as under:

1. Sun in Aries        
2. Venus in Pisces
3. Mars in Capricorn 
4. Saturn in Libra
5. Jupiter rising in Cancer                    
6. Moon near star Punar vasu (Pollux) in Gemini Constellation


 
Amazing! See the sky view below shows exactly similar location of planets, stars and zodiac constellations on the 10th of January in the year 5114 BC if viewed from latitude/longitude of Ayodhya (25°N 81°E). By making use of software to convert solar calendar into lunar calendar, it was found that this date also happened to be the 9th day of Shukla Paksha in ‘Chaitra’ month and the time was around 12 to 1 noontime. This is exactly the time and date when Ramnavmi is celebrated all over India till date.

 
Date of Exile of Shri Ram

In Valmiki Ramayan it is mentioned in Ayodhya Kaand (2/4/18) that Dashratha wanted to make Shri Ram the king because Sun, Mars and Rahu had surrounded his nakshatra and normally under such planetary positions the king dies or becomes a victim of conspiracies. Zodiac sign of king Dashratha was Pisces and his nakshatra was Rewati. This planetary position was prevailing on the 5th of January 5089 BC and it was on this day that Shri Ram had to leave Ayodhya for 14 years. Thus he was 25 years old at that time (5114-5089) and there are several shlokas in Valmiki Ramayan which indicate that Shri Ram was 25 years old when he left Ayodhya for his 14 years of exile.

 

Solar Eclipse during War with Khar-Dushan

Ramayan refers to the solar eclipse at the time of war with Khar-Dushan in later half of 13th year of Shri Ram’s stay in the forests. Valmiki has also mentioned that it was Amavasya day and planet Mars was in the middle. When this data was entered, the sky view generated by Planetarium software indicated that there was a solar eclipse on 7th October, 5077 BC which could be seen from Panchvati (20° N; 73° E) On that date planetary configuration was the same as has been described by Valmiki i.e. Mars was in the middle; on one side were Mercury, Venus and Jupiter and on the other side were Sun, Moon and Saturn. (Fig. 2).
 

Other Eclipses mentioned in Ramayan
In Kishkindha kaand there is a reference to solar eclipse (4/15/3) on the day Bali was killed. Software shows a solar eclipse on 3rd April 5076 BC which was the only solar eclipse during the entire year.
In Sunder Kaand there is a reference to lunar eclipse when Hanuman spots Sita in Ashok Vatika (5/19/14, 5/29/7, 5/35/87). Sky view reveals lunar eclipse starting from 4.15 pm on 12th September 5076 BC from Colombo (7°N; 80°E).
Thus the planetary references in Valmiki Ramayan correspond to actual sky seen from the given places around 5100 BC in the same sequence as narrated. The way in which archaeological, paleobotanical, genetic, oceanographic, geological, ecological and remote sensing research reports corroborate the astronomical dates is amazing! These details will also be shared through our upcoming website, bhootkaal.com.
 
Lessons from the life of Lord Ram
The story of Shri Ram, when appreciated in its true perspective, would emerge as the biggest unifying factor for India. He remains unparalleled as an ideal son, an ideal brother, an ideal warrior and an ideal king; that is why he is described as Maryada Purushottam Ram!
He was a nationalist par excellence who left his kingdom to help the small kings located all over India to save their kingdoms from being usurped by wicked King Ravana of Sri Lanka and his relatives and devils like Khar, Dushan, Trishira and Maarich representing him in India.
Shri Ram moved from place to place to spread the message of unity by showing very high level of respect for the people from backward tribes and those considered untouchable. He embraced Guh Nishad who belonged to Kol tribe, considered to be a lower caste; he gave a strong message against untouchability by eating with great affection jootha berries of Bhilni (Shabri) of Bhil tribe. He sent his wife and children to be brought up and educated by Maharishi Valmiki who is stated to be Shudra but was a great scholar in the ancient world.
Shri Ram tried and succeeded in establishing victory of good over evil. He helped rishis and munis in living a life of honor. He got the kingdoms of small noble kings restored to them and acted as the biggest unifying factor. He set the finest example of a welfare state, in which the supreme duty of the king is working for the well being and happiness of masses.
We all need to strive to establish Ram Rajya in India for rich and poor of all communities and castes!


Friday, June 15, 2012

Scientific Dating of Vedic and Ramayan Era



Ecological perspective
History of the Holocene (post last ice age) deserves to be rewritten based on multi-disciplinary scientific evidences. Aryan invasion theory was propagated based on linguistic guesswork, religious hearsay and old outdated archaeological reports. Christianity has long back discarded its 18th century beliefs that world got created on 23rd October, 4004 BC, Biblical flood occurred in 2400 B.C. and that civilizations started expanding and migrating in around 1500 B.C. It is almost unanimously accepted by the scholars and scientists that there have been several cycles of civilizations and that last ice age ended around 10000 B.C., ushering in the beginnings of Holocene i.e. Nutan Yug.
The melting of ice caps naturally got started near the Equator, resulting in discharge of huge quantities of water which first flowed in the form of rivers in South India. The civilizations developed, populations multiplied over hundreds of years resulting in water scarcity. More adventurous started migrating northwards - initially towards central India and later on towards the Himalayan rivers in the North. Thousands of years of water security provided by Saraswati, Indus and Ganga river systems and world's most fertile planes cultivated around them naturally facilitated the extra-ordinary development of culture and civilization from around 8000 B.C. After thousands of years water supply from ice-caps started depleting, tectonic movements resulted in drying up of rivers like Saraswati, trade relations flourished and more adventurous people started moving towards Central Asia and Europe. Thus there was neither any end of Vedic civilisation due to imaginary Aryan invasion theory nor were Dravidians 'aboriginal savages' of North India. The rise and fall of Vedic Civilisation is thus attributable to ecological cycle post last ice age and not to any 'Aryan invasion'
           
Sky views in Rigveda
There are 53 references in Rigveda as prayers offered to Aswinis at dawn. The description clearly points to the observation of the pair of stars in the Aries constellation (referred to as Aashvin or Asvini) just before sunrise as a ritual to mark the year beginning. Using Planetarium software, we find that the Winter Solstice occurred on 19 December, 7000 BC at 0735 hrs as shown in Figure 1. This is the earliest reference to Vedic calendar with year beginning at Winter Solstice, found in Rigveda (5-77-1/2; 1-46-14; 7-69-3/2). Heliacal rising of Ashwini Nakshatra (Aries) can be seen to occur on 5th January, 7000 BC, marking the year beginning (Fig. 1).




Fig. 2: Sky on Jan 05, 7000 BC, 0649 hrs shows heliacal rising of Asvini Nakshatra after Winter Solstice, marking the year beginning (RgVeda  5-77-1/2; 1-46-14; 7-69-3/2). 

A thousand years later, Winter Solstice no longer occurred near Aries (Asvini) due to precession. As a result, Ashwinis were no longer rising heliacally as before. They were still below the horizon at sunrise around Winter Solstice time. The Winter Solstice had moved to Revati by 6000 BC. Thus the precession of Equinoxes and Solistices was being observed by Rigvedic Scholars.

The Sky of 19th December, 6000 BC at sunrise on the Winter Solstice day shows that Ashvini gave way to bright star Chitra (α Vir) on opposite side (Western horizon). A full Moon in Chitra Nakshatra provided a new time marker in the sky and heralded the lunar month naming system-Chaitra, Vaisakha etc. (Rigveda: 5-74-1,2 and Tait Samh. 7-4-8). See Fig. 2 -



Winter Solstice opposite Citra - Sky of 19 Dec 6000 BC at sunrise shows that Asvini gave way to bright star Citra on opposite side (western horizon). It began to be used for determining the year beginning. A full Moon occurring in Citra heralded the lunar month naming system-Caitra, Vaisakha etc (Tait.  Samh. 7-4-8).

Most amazing is the fact that reference to Agastya Muni (who composed some Slokas of Rigveda) first observing star Canopus (star Agastya) from Vindhyas refers to the sky view of 18th Dcember, 5100 BC. Lord Ram also visits Agastya Muni's Agnishala and sequential astronomical dates of important events in Shri Ram's life also are of around 5100 BC!


Recommended Readings:

1. Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

2. Subramanian Swamy. 2008. Rama Setu: Symbol of National Unity

3. Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (Hindi).

4. Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (English).

5.  Sita Ram, Rai Bahadur. 1932. Ayodhya Ka Itihas (in Hindi). New Delhi: Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh.









Sunday, August 1, 2010

Mystery of Sarsavati River

In Rig Veda, the name of Sarasvati appears 72 times. It is described as a mighty river flowing from the mountain to the sea. In Mandalas I to IV of Rigveda, there are graphic details of release of huge water volumes from serpantine glaciers, which made the rivers flow with the blessings of Lord Indra. It is described as the Ambitame, Naditame and Devitame that is best of mother, best of river and best of goddess. It was the life stream of the people of ancient India, mostly in the Vedic and Puranic ages. Satellite imagery combined with geological studies and discovery of sites of Harappan civilization on the banks of Saraswati also indicate that it was flowing as a mighty river around 8000 years ago.

However till the middle of 19th century the river was lost. From mid 19th century onwards several geologists and archaeologists traced the palaeochannels of different phases of ancient Sarasvati River System. During last more than 150 years geological, archaeological, hydrological, ecological research reports and remote sensing images taken by LANDSAT (USA), IRS-1C (India), French SPOT Satellites (France) and ERSS (Europe), have provided scientific and credible evidence about the flow, migration and decay of Sarasvati River during its different phases.

These evidences remarkably corroborate the references to the origin, changing courses and disappearance of Sarasvati river system in Rigveda, Yajurveda, Ramayana and Mahabharata. Astonishingly these also match the astronomical dating of events in Vedas and Epics done by us, which relate to the period 7000 BC to 2000 BC.

Let us look at some very interesting instances -
           
In Rigveda, the Vedic Saraswati, is described as the mightiest river – “Seven sistered, sprung from three-fold sources” [6:61:12].  Again it is described as “Saptathi Sindhumata” i.e., mother of seven rivers strongly flowing and swelling in volumes (7:36:6).

Prayers are again offered to ten rivers including Sarasvati in Nadi Stuti sukta as under -“Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Shutudri (Sutlej), Purushni (Ravi), Asikni (Chenab), Marudvridha, Vitasta (Jhelam), Arijikya and Sushoma (10:75:5)”. (Imagine the knowledge of the geograghy of the scholars composing the hymns!

Mahabharata gives a clear geographical account of Sarasvati becoming a non-perennial river vanishing and re-appearing in the deserts [3:80:118 & 9:36:1], surviving in the form of a number of lakes e.g. Brahmasar, jyotisar, Kaleswar (in Haryana), Katasar, Pandusar & Ravisar (in Rajasthan).  Kurukshetra is described as located in the south of Sarasvati and north of Drishadvati [Mbh. 3:81:115]

Now let us compare these descriptions of Sarasvati River System in Vedas and Epics with the data collected from satellite pictures, geological studies and archaeological reports -

Three fold sources have been identified as -

1. Lake Mansrovar in Mount kailash from where Sutlej originates.
2. Sirmaur region of Siwalik from where Sarasvati originated and Bandarpunch glaciers from where Drishadvati originated and entered the plains at Adi Badri (Yamunanagar) in Haryana.
3. Yamnotri Glacier of Garhwal Himalayas from where Yamuna originated.


More than 8000 years back Sarasvati was the mightiest river, having Yamuna & Sutlej as its tributaries and was flowing along the Aravalli Hills.  Due to northward movement of the plate of Indian subcontinent, tectonic upheaval of the Aravallis, a major earthquake around 3000 BC and climatic changes, Yamuna and Sutlej, migrated in opposite directions – Yamuna moved eastward to join the Ganges later-on. Sutlej moved westward and was flowing as an independent river upto the sea for hundreds of years and thereafter joined Beas, a tributary of Sind (Indus) River. Presently, Sutlej and Yamuna are the two perennial rivers whereas Sarasvati is ephemeral, visible in the form of paleochannels, trapped underground waters and ponds/lakes. Modern day Ghaggar rises in Morni Hills of Shivalik and meets Sarasvati at Rasula in Patiala Distt. Combined river now known as Ghaggar flows through Sirsa, hanumangarh, Ganganagar and Bhawalpur state of Pakistan.

Rejuvenation of Sub-surface Drainage after Bhuj and Haryana Earthquakes -

As discussed in the previous section, Saraswati drainages in Thar Desert area have disappeared due to climatic changes in 3000 BC. It has been observed that the sub-surface drainages (palaeochannels) in the Rann area rejuvenated after the Bhuj earthquake of 26th January, 2001, which might have been caused due to increase in hydrostatic pressure at the sub-surface aquifer condition.
Similar phenomena like sudden spurt of sub-surface water oozing at Kalayat village in Jind district of Haryana had been observed in December, 2005 (Bhadra et al., 2006) after earthquakes in the area.
The satellite picture shown also clarifies that as described in Vedas, Sarasvati river system was surrounded on one side by Ganga and its tributaries and on the other side by Indus River System (Courtesy: J R Sharma and B k Bhadra).

(courtesy: Bhadra B K and J R Sharma)


Discovery of large number of Vedic Harappan archaeological sites-

Out of more than 2800 sites excavated along Indus and Sarasvati river systems, more than 55% are in Sarasvati basin, but we still continue to call our ancient civilization as Indus civilization instead of calling it as Indus-Sarasvati Civilization! These sites include world famous excavations of Banawali (famous for world's first Acropolis), Kalibangan (known for its layout and designed floor tiles, Lothal (having world's oldest dockyard) and Dholavira (world's oldest huge Rock cut Reservoir and largest inscription etc. From these sites has been found evidence of cultivation of wheat and rice 7000 years back, copper arrow heads, terracotta, items of jewellery made of beeds, stones & gold, boats and anchors, drainage systems and warehouses, inscriptions and seals etc. 

In fact Indus Saravati Civilisation flourished in more than 1 lac sq. km. area, covering Uttrakhand, UP, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Pakistan. It extended from Makrana in the West to Alamgirpur (UP) in the east, from Afghanistan in northwest and Manda (J & K) in North to Bhagatrao in Gujarat.

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It is thus more than clear that world's greatest and oldest civilisation flourished around Sarasvati and Vedas, Epics, Smritis, Shrutis were composed long its  banks. Therefore even after its wane, the people kept on worshipping as Goddess of Learning and Ganga emerged as the new holy river.
Sarasvati in a sense is like modern India, having forgotten its heritage of Himalayan proportions, it has lost itself in a featureless desert! Nevertheless, it is still hidden and is capable of restoring the past glory. 
Reverence for this glorious past is a necessary element of patriotism.  Allowing propagation of a false view of one’s own cultural heritage is not tolerance but self-betrayal!


Suggested Reading for more details-

1. Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

2. Bhadra, B.K., A.K. Gupta, and J.R. Sharma. 2009. Saraswati Nadi in Haryana and its linkage  with  the  Vedic  Saraswati  River–Integrated  study  based  on  satellite images and ground based  information.  Journal of Geological Society of India, Bangalore, Vol.73: 273-288.

3. Michael Denino. 2010. The Lost River - On the Trail of the Sarasvati. Penguine Books

4. Kalyanraman, S.,Vedic River Sarasvati and Hindu Civilization, Aryan Books International,2008.

5. Valdiya, K.S. 2002. Saraswati The River That Disappeared. Hyderabad: University Press (India):116.