Showing posts with label Remote Sensing. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Remote Sensing. Show all posts

Thursday, May 19, 2016

RAMSETHU - Faith vis-a-vis Reality

Ramsetu is a natural chain of islands, hills, shoals, submerged in Palk Strait from Dhanushkoti to Talaimannar, in which certain gaps have been filled up, indicating the contribution of human hand. One of the two surviving fillings can be seen in the picture revealing well defined boundaries and stone fillings. During visit to Rameshwaram, I got an extra-ordinary opportunity to observe the depth at which a part of Ramsethu was found submerged under the sea which measured 9.5 feet (about 3 meters) on the fisherman’s oar.

Fig. 8: Boundaries looking like ropes & the fillings in between

Ram’s Bridge – references in Ramayan

In Yuddh Kand, sarg 22 (shlokas 45-73) Valmiki has given graphic details of Lord Ram carrying out research and exploration to identify a suitable location for construction of the bridge. After identifying the location, he requested Sugriva to search for an expert Shilpakar who could construct such a bridge. Sugriva recommended the name of Nal, a famous shilpakar, who had the expertise similar to that of Vishwakarma in constructing the bridge. Accordingly Nal was called; he concurred that bridge could indeed to constructed at the location identified by Shri Ram. The construction of this bridge was completed under the supervision of Nal in five days by filling up of the gaps in the existing natural chain of land route consisting of islands, rocks and shoals (6/22/68-73).

The armymen of Lord Ram utilized various tools and implements for uprooting trees like saal, taar, coconut, mango, ashoka, arjun, bakul and bilva etc (6/22/47). With the help of various yantras they transported these stones, trees, creepers, and boulders to the seashore (2/22/60). Shilpakar Nal directed the armymen to stand with long ropes on either side and got the bridge constructed in five days by binding such transported materials together. Even the use of measuring tools has been described (6/22/65).

Rama's Bridge - its satellite image and oceanographic evidences:

The bridge is composed of a series of islands, rocks, and shoals and it is stated to be 30 kilometers long. It is found exactly at the location narrated in Valmiki Ramayan. See NASA picture of this Bridge given above.

Sea level curve prepared by the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, corroborates the fact that sea level was about three meters lower around 5100 BC; thus corroborating the fact that in 5100 BC Ramsethu was above the sea level and could be used as a land route between Rameshwaram and Sri Lanka. Thus even fluctuations in sea levels corroborate references to Ramsethu in Ramayan.

Some very Interesting facts about Ramsethu

All attempts to create shipping route by completing the Sethu Samudram project have so far failed. Shri Subramnian Swamy summarized the report dated January 23, 2007 published in the Asian Age stating that “the Dredging Corporation of India’s (DCI) dredger imported from Holland had broken into two and sunk into the sea when it began work on the Ram Setu. The DCI crane that went to pick up the dredger pieces also broke and sank. The Russian engineer consultant who went to inspect the mishap broke his leg.” As a result all efforts made on behalf of the Government so far to destroy remains of Ram Setu have failed and consequently Sethusamudram Shipping Canal could not become a reality.

 We suggest that why not construct a the bridge as several multi-nationals are offering to construct the bridge under BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) scheme? Can one imagine the number of people from India who will walk over this reconstructed Ramsethu every year and the kind of profit the builder as well as Indian and Sri Lankan Governments would be able to earn! The relations between the two neighboring countries would drastically improve.

Monday, February 15, 2016

Sarasvati: Archaeology and Remote-sensing

Comprehensive and wide-ranging scientific evidences based on scientific researches carried out for more than 50 years, including Space imagery, Archaeology, Geology, Hydrology, Geography and Literature have given extremely credible evidences of origin, flow and decay of Sarasvati river! 

I give you only three glimpses out of 20 slides I have. Have a look at them and I am sure that you would start wondering why in History books taught to us for last more than 50 years, which were written by leftist historians, it is said as imaginary! Was demeaning and distorting India's heritage their only agenda? Or spreading this falsehood also is a part of freedom of speech which is meant to be used for destroying India; its past, present and future!

Sunday, August 1, 2010

Mystery of Sarasvati River

In Rig Veda, the name of Sarasvati appears 72 times. It is described as a mighty river flowing from the mountain to the sea. In Mandalas I to IV of Rigveda, there are graphic details of release of huge water volumes from serpantine glaciers, which made the rivers flow with the blessings of Lord Indra. It is described as the Ambitame, Naditame and Devitame that is best of mother, best of river and best of goddess. It was the life stream of the people of ancient India, mostly in the Vedic and Puranic ages. Satellite imagery combined with geological studies and discovery of sites of Harappan civilization on the banks of Saraswati also indicate that it was flowing as a mighty river around 8000 years ago.

However till the middle of 19th century the river was lost. From mid 19th century onwards several geologists and archaeologists traced the palaeochannels of different phases of ancient Sarasvati River System. During last more than 150 years geological, archaeological, hydrological, ecological research reports and remote sensing images taken by LANDSAT (USA), IRS-1C (India), French SPOT Satellites (France) and ERSS (Europe), have provided scientific and credible evidence about the flow, migration and decay of Sarasvati River during its different phases.

These evidences remarkably corroborate the references to the origin, changing courses and disappearance of Sarasvati river system in Rigveda, Yajurveda, Ramayana and Mahabharata. Astonishingly these also match the astronomical dating of events in Vedas and Epics done by us, which relate to the period 7000 BC to 2000 BC.

Let us look at some very interesting instances -
In Rigveda, the Vedic Saraswati, is described as the mightiest river – “Seven sistered, sprung from three-fold sources” [6:61:12].  Again it is described as “Saptathi Sindhumata” i.e., mother of seven rivers strongly flowing and swelling in volumes (7:36:6).

Prayers are again offered to ten rivers including Sarasvati in Nadi Stuti sukta as under -“Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Shutudri (Sutlej), Purushni (Ravi), Asikni (Chenab), Marudvridha, Vitasta (Jhelam), Arijikya and Sushoma (10:75:5)”. (Imagine the knowledge of the geograghy of the scholars composing the hymns!

Mahabharata gives a clear geographical account of Sarasvati becoming a non-perennial river vanishing and re-appearing in the deserts [3:80:118 & 9:36:1], surviving in the form of a number of lakes e.g. Brahmasar, jyotisar, Kaleswar (in Haryana), Katasar, Pandusar & Ravisar (in Rajasthan).  Kurukshetra is described as located in the south of Sarasvati and north of Drishadvati [Mbh. 3:81:115]

Now let us compare these descriptions of Sarasvati River System in Vedas and Epics with the data collected from satellite pictures, geological studies and archaeological reports -

Three fold sources have been identified as -

1. Lake Mansrovar in Mount kailash from where Sutlej originates.
2. Sirmaur region of Siwalik from where Sarasvati originated and Bandarpunch glaciers from where Drishadvati originated and entered the plains at Adi Badri (Yamunanagar) in Haryana.
3. Yamnotri Glacier of Garhwal Himalayas from where Yamuna originated.

More than 8000 years back Sarasvati was the mightiest river, having Yamuna & Sutlej as its tributaries and was flowing along the Aravalli Hills.  Due to northward movement of the plate of Indian subcontinent, tectonic upheaval of the Aravallis, a major earthquake around 3000 BC and climatic changes, Yamuna and Sutlej, migrated in opposite directions – Yamuna moved eastward to join the Ganges later-on. Sutlej moved westward and was flowing as an independent river upto the sea for hundreds of years and thereafter joined Beas, a tributary of Sind (Indus) River. Presently, Sutlej and Yamuna are the two perennial rivers whereas Sarasvati is ephemeral, visible in the form of paleochannels, trapped underground waters and ponds/lakes. Modern day Ghaggar rises in Morni Hills of Shivalik and meets Sarasvati at Rasula in Patiala Distt. Combined river now known as Ghaggar flows through Sirsa, hanumangarh, Ganganagar and Bhawalpur state of Pakistan.

Rejuvenation of Sub-surface Drainage after Bhuj and Haryana Earthquakes -

As discussed in the previous section, Saraswati drainages in Thar Desert area have disappeared due to climatic changes in 3000 BC. It has been observed that the sub-surface drainages (palaeochannels) in the Rann area rejuvenated after the Bhuj earthquake of 26th January, 2001, which might have been caused due to increase in hydrostatic pressure at the sub-surface aquifer condition.

Similar phenomena like sudden spurt of sub-surface water oozing at Kalayat village in Jind district of Haryana had been observed in December, 2005 (Bhadra et al., 2006) after earthquakes in the area.
The satellite picture shown also clarifies that as described in Vedas, Sarasvati river system was surrounded on one side by Ganga and its tributaries and on the other side by Indus River System (Courtesy: J R Sharma and B k Bhadra).

(courtesy: Bhadra B K and J R Sharma)

Discovery of large number of Vedic Harappan archaeological sites-

Out of more than 2800 sites excavated along Indus and Sarasvati river systems, more than 55% are in Sarasvati basin, but we still continue to call our ancient civilization as Indus civilization instead of calling it as Indus-Sarasvati Civilization! These sites include world famous excavations of Banawali (famous for world's first Acropolis), Kalibangan (known for its layout and designed floor tiles, Lothal (having world's oldest dockyard) and Dholavira (world's oldest huge Rock cut Reservoir and largest inscription etc. From these sites has been found evidence of cultivation of wheat and rice 7000 years back, copper arrow heads, terracotta, items of jewellery made of beeds, stones & gold, boats and anchors, drainage systems and warehouses, inscriptions and seals etc. 

In fact Indus Saravati Civilisation flourished in more than 1 lac sq. km. area, covering Uttrakhand, UP, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Pakistan. It extended from Makrana in the West to Alamgirpur (UP) in the east, from Afghanistan in northwest and Manda (J & K) in North to Bhagatrao in Gujarat.

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It is thus more than clear that world's greatest and oldest civilisation flourished around Sarasvati and Vedas, Epics, Smritis, Shrutis were composed long its  banks. Therefore even after its wane, the people kept on worshipping as Goddess of Learning and Ganga emerged as the new holy river.

Sarasvati in a sense is like modern India, having forgotten its heritage of Himalayan proportions, it has lost itself in a featureless desert! Nevertheless, it is still hidden and is capable of restoring the past glory. 

Reverence for this glorious past is a necessary element of patriotism.  Allowing propagation of a false view of one’s own cultural heritage is not tolerance but self-betrayal!

Suggested Reading for more details-

1. Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

2. Bhadra, B.K., A.K. Gupta, and J.R. Sharma. 2009. Saraswati Nadi in Haryana and its linkage  with  the  Vedic  Saraswati  River–Integrated  study  based  on  satellite images and ground based  information.  Journal of Geological Society of India, Bangalore, Vol.73: 273-288.

3. Michael Denino. 2010. The Lost River - On the Trail of the Sarasvati. Penguine Books

4. Kalyanraman, S.,Vedic River Sarasvati and Hindu Civilization, Aryan Books International,2008.

5. Valdiya, K.S. 2002. Saraswati The River That Disappeared. Hyderabad: University Press (India):116.