Wednesday, August 20, 2014

RAMAYANA AND GENOME STUDIES

Sky views, generated through Planetarium software, of planetary references in Valmiki Ramayana relate sequentially to the period around 5100 BC i.e. 7000 BP. There is some very interesting corroboration through DNA studies.

Indian history has recorded that Shri Ram s/o Raja Dashrath, belonged to Surya Vansh and he was the 64th ruler of this dynasty. Most of the names and other relevant particulars of previous 63 kings are listed in Vishnu Purana (Chaturth Ansha, Chapter 5), Srimad Bhagwat Purana (Navam Skandha, Chapter 13), Valmiki Ramayan (Baal Kaand, Sarga 70-71).

Manu was the first king, Iksavaku second, Harishchandra was 33rd ruler, whereas Sagar was 40th and Bhagirath was 44th ruler of Suryavansha. There are also names of 62 successors of Lord Ram listed in these ancient books. Thus the dates of Suryavanshi rulers get pushed back by around 2000 years i.e. to 9000 BP. It is obvious that it would have taken at least 2000 years for the civilization to develop practices relating to agriculture and irrigation, trade and industry, navigation and shipping, urban planning and civil administration; leading to formation of large kingdoms and the institution of kingship. It would have taken a few thousand years, after the beginning of the Nutan Yug, for the evolving society to attain the level of intellectual, philosophical, cultural and scientific activity as is evident from the contents of Vedas and Ramayan.

Almost all the major Genome studies carried out for the Holocene (nutan yug) period, including those carried out by Kenneth A. R. Kennedy and Cavalli-Sfroza, have revealed an amazing correlation of the genealogy with the genetic profile of humans settled in Indian Subcontinent since the Holocene (about 11000 years). These have also corroborated the development of civilization revealed through Vedas and Epics. Almost all the Genome studies have concluded that genetic profile of people of the Indian subcontinent has remained the same for last more than 55000 years. For last 11000 years, this genetic profile is of culturally developing people who had started speaking a structured language and were taking cooked food. It has also been concluded that the Dravidians as well as north Indians have common ancestors and both are originals of India, have common genetic profile and had common ancestors.

A very interesting study was recently conducted by Dr. Gyaneshwar Chaubey of Estonian Biocentre. He scanned genepool of three most ancient tribes mentioned in Ramayana, i.e. Kol (e.g. Guh nishad), Bhil (e.g. Bhilni) and Gond, and compared the results with their neighboring populations and other world populations. It was concluded that the genepool of these tribes was primarily founded over indigenous component, having continuity for last over ten thousand years. Is it not a most emphatic rejection of Aryan Invasion theory, and corroboration of astronomical dates of Ramayana references?

  
Suggested Readings

1. Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

2. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (2003) The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution. Nat Genet 33 Suppl: 266-275.

3. Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Villems R (2007) Peopling of South Asia: investigating the caste-tribe continuum in India. Bioessays 29: 91-100.(http://hdl.handle.net/10062/15240)

4. Chaubey G The demographic history of India: A perspective based on genetic evidence (http://hdl.handle.net/10062/15240). PhD. Universitatis Tartuensis, Evolutionary Biology;(2010)

5. Kazanas N (1999) The Rigveda and Indo-Europeans. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute

6. Tiwari SK Tribal roots of Hinduism. Sarup & Sons; (2002)

7. Kapil Kapoor and Sheshagiri Rao, Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Vols. I and XI) India Heritage Research Foundation-USA

8. Rajaram N.S. and David Frawley, The Vedic"Aryans" and the origins of civilization : a literary and scientific perspective: World Heritage Press.

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

GANGA - faith and reality intertwined (a fascinating story)


Story of origin of Ganga narrated in valmiki ramayan -

'Descending from the sky-high Shivalinga peaks of Himalayas, Ganga got entangled in the mighty serpentine glaciers spread all around like matted coils of Lord Shiva's hair and thus continued to meander in the Gangotri glaciers for many years. With the superhuman efforts of Suryavanshi king, Bhagirath, its waters were brought to the terrestrial planes and it flowed through the path dug by Sagar putras/sainiks and its waters flowed right upto Rasatala ie.samudra, and thus Bhagirath could offer tarpan to his sixty thousand ancestors'.

It is described also as Tripathaga as it carves its way from heaven (i.e. Shivalinga peaks), through matted coils of Shiva's hair (i.e. mighty gangotri glaciers) and finally flows in subterranean region, right upto Ganga sagar. 

This in short is the story of origin of Ganga narrated by Rishi Vishwamitra to Shri Ram (Ramayan, Baal kand, sargas 38 to 45)!. For those who are looking for divine interpretation - Ganga descended from heavens, got entangled in Jata-joot of Lord Shiva and then came to earth. For those who are looking for rational and scientific meaning, Ganga (Bhagirthi) descended from Shivalinga peaks, meandered through Gangotri Glaciers and flowed through the plains of northern India, right upto Rasatal (Gangasagar), the route for which had been dug out under the orders of raja Sagar. Let us look at just one picture of the region to appreciate that both divinity and reality aspects are correct and represent wonderful poetic skills of Valmiki Ji -


                            Sunset at Gangotri, looking up the Ganges Valley toward Gaumukh. Bhagirath peak is on the left, and Shivling on the right. 
                       (Photo courtesy of Nick Barootian '02)


Astronomical dates of sky views depicted by Aadi Kavi Valmiki Ji at the time of important events in Lord Ram's life match sequentially around 5100 BC. Lord Ram was the 64th ruler of Suryavansh, whereas Sagar was its 40th ruler and Bhagirath 44th ruler. This will take us to around 6000 BC (8000 BP).

Raja Sagar was worried that north western Bharatvarsha was getting flooded whereas eastern areas of Indian sub-continent were suffering from acute water shortages. Consequently he made a plan to divert waters from Himalayas to the eastern areas right upto Bengal areas and then, as was the custom in those days, he commenced a Yajna (sacrificial performance), which was to be concluded only when sacrificial horse was brought back from such far off destination.

The horse was taken to Kapil Muni's Ashram, probably modern day Gangasagar, Sixty thousand sons (Sainiks of Sagar) were sent to dig out the route right upto Rasatal (1/39/15,19,21).When they came back without the horse after carrying out digging, they were sent back by Raja Sagar to redig on the same route and then due to shortage of water combined with inhospitality of Kapil Muni, they all died (1/40/11). For next 32 years, Sagar could not think of any concrete plan to divert Himalayan waters towards the East through the dug-out path and died after about 32 years. His grandson Anshuman made efforts for 32 years but could not get the Ganga waters reached for the tarpan of his ancestors. Similaly his successor Raja Dilip made efforts for another 30 years but could not succeed.

Raja Bhagirath was coronated as the 44th Suryavanshi samraat. However, in order to save his praja in the north west from deluge and in the east from draught and in order to reach Ganga waters to rasatal for the tarpan of his ancestors, Raja Bhagirath went to Himalayas after leaving the affairs of the kingdom on his mantris, For several years he carried out research and exploration, observing the Shivalinga peak from the hill top which was shaped like the tip of the thumb, and was later named as Bhagirath peak (1/43/1).

Finally with the blessings of Lord Brahma and lord Shiva, he succeeded in identifying the mighty Gangotri glaciers, looking like jata-joot of Lord Shiva, in which Ganga waters were entangled (1/43/4,7). After some more research, he identified and also partly created the route through which waters could be carried to the wide spread routes got dug by his ancestor Raja Sagar and thus succeeded in completing the kalyankari project which his ancestors had started 1/44/1,28,12). In this manner sacred Ganga descended from the sky on Shiva's forehead and then flowed onto the earth; roaring, tumbling and gliding, it reached the sea (gangasagar). (refer - 1/43/15,23,24).

Sea level fluctuations fully support the above details and reveal very clearly that water level in the sea rose drastically during 8000 BP to 7000 BP. Look at the sea level curve prepared by Dr. Rajiv Nigam of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO). Surprisingly reference to this phenomena has also been made in Yudhh Kaand of Valmiki Ramayan (6/19/31 & 6/22/50), where Vibhishan is mentioning to Lord Ram that the sea should reveal the shallow water route for construction of a bridge because its waters had been augmented by ancestors of Lord Ram.


Remote sensing imagery explained by Sharma and Bhadra of ISRO Jodhpur centre seems to be corroborating these details and time line. Further somewhere around 5000 BP, Yamuna, which was a tributary of Sarasvati got diverted to Ganga. Archaeological reports support these conclusions with plethora of evidence. Thus, in early Rigvedic period Sarasvati was the mightiest river, whereas in later Vedic age Ganga, Sindhu and Sarasvati were worshipped as the mighty rivers. Slowly Sarasvati disappeared as it became non perennial and ephemeral. Ganga emerged as the symbol of life and emancipator of mankind. She is worshipped as the divinity in flow.


For some related details refer to -
1) Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra. 2012. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras: Scientific Evidences from the Depths of Oceans to the Heights of Skies. Institute of Scientific Research on Vedas. Abridged editions also available in English and Hindi.

Ganga:A Divinity In Flow (English) by Vijay Singal


Ek thi Nadi sarasvati by Valdiya 

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (Hindi)

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana (English)